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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Early administration of vitamins B1 and B6 and l-carnitine prevents a second attack of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion: A case control study

Kana Okazaki Fukui, Masaya Kubota, Hiroshi Terashima, Akira Ishiguro, Hirofumi Kashii
Brain & Development 2019 March 9
30862409

BACKGROUND: Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is the most prevalent encephalopathy in Japanese children. AESD is characterized by a prolonged febrile seizure on day 1 followed by secondary seizures and MRI abnormality on days 4-6, resulting in high incidence of neurological sequelae. We aimed to clarify whether early administration of vitamins (vitamin B1, vitamin B6, and l-carnitine) would improve the clinical course of AESD.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 34 patients with acute encephalopathy who were admitted to our hospital between January 2009 and August 2016. Of the retrospectively registered 34 patients, 22 (65%) since 2011 were treated with the drug cocktail (prescription group) within 24 h of onset, whereas 12 (35%) before 2011 were not (non-prescription group). We compared clinical course, laboratory data, and MRI findings historically in both groups.

RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in terms of laboratory findings except for blood lactate values. There were no differences between the two groups regarding duration of ICU admission, intubation, or the duration of seizures. Among the prescription group, two patients developed AESD while 20 had mild encephalopathy (single phasic). In contrast, seven patients inthe non-prescription group developed AESD while five did not. The incidence of AESD was lower in the prescription group (P = 0.004). As for outcomes, the rate of developmental delay and epilepsy was significantly lower in the prescription group.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that early administration of vitamins would improve the clinical course of acute encephalopathy. Mitochondrial rescue and neuroprotection are thought to be responsible for the favorable results.

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