Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor compared with sulfonylurea in combination with metformin: cardiovascular and renal outcomes in a propensity-matched cohort study

Kyoung Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Juneyoung Lee, Jae Hyun Bae, Jee Hyun An, Hee Young Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
Cardiovascular Diabetology 2019 March 11, 18 (1): 28

BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) on the risk of major cardiocerebrovascular and renal outcomes compared with sulfonylurea (SU) combined with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes from a population-based cohort.

METHODS: From a nationwide cohort in Korea (2008-2013), 23,674 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with DPP4i plus metformin or SU plus metformin were selected and matched by propensity score. Composite cardiocerebrovascular events including incident ischemic heart disease (IHD), ischemic stroke (IS), hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), and cardiocerebrovascular death, as well as renal events including incident end-stage renal disease or initiation of renal-replacement therapy were assessed by Cox proportional-hazards models.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 19.6 months (interquartile range 7.2-36.4), 762 composite cardiocerebrovascular events and 17 end-stage renal events occurred. There was no significant difference in the risk of IHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI 0.81-1.23), IS (HR, 0.95; 95% CI 0.74-1.23), or cardiocerebrovascular death (HR, 0.74; 95% CI 0.46-1.18) in the DPP4i group compared to that in the SU group. Likewise, DPP4i therapy was not associated with the risk of end-stage renal outcomes (HR, 1.23; 95% CI 0.41-3.62). However, the risk of HHF was significantly higher in the DPP4i group than in the SU group (HR, 1.47; 95% CI 1.07-2.04).

CONCLUSIONS: This real-world database analysis showed that DPP4i therapy did not increase the overall risk of major cardiovascular and renal outcomes compared to SU therapy. However, the DPP4i-associated risk of HHF remained significant.

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