Characterization of the transmission behavior of dental filling materials and cements for the diode lasers' and the Nd:YAG laser's wavelengths

Rolf Diebolder, Carmen U Schmid, Ralph G Luthardt, Heike Rudolph, Katharina Kuhn
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 2019 March 7

OBJECTIVES: Diode lasers and the Nd:YAG laser are used in periodontal therapy and soft tissue surgery. Dental filling materials or cements might be inadvertently damaged. The underlying mechanism of the damage is based on the dental material's specific transmission and thus absorption behavior.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four material representatives for composites, glass ionomer cements and other material classes (e.g., compomer) were processed to 100 μm and 200 μm planar specimens and spectroscopically measured for their collimated transmission in the photo spectrometer Varian Cary 5000. The (1) mean intensity of transmitted light was determined for the laser wavelengths of interest (810 nm, 940 nm, 980 nm, 1,064 nm) and used to calculate the (2) absorption lengths.

RESULTS: The (1) mean intensity of transmitted light ranged between 9.51 % (Panavia F 2.0 for 810 nm) and 96.79% (Artegral Cem for 1,064 nm) for the composite specimens (100 μm) and was-with few exceptions-near zero for the representatives of glass ionomer cement and the other material classes. The (2) absorption lengths were between 0.06 mm (Panavia F 2.0 for all wavelengths of interest) and 1.33 mm (Coltène Duo Cement Plus for 1,064 nm) for the composites and below or equal 0.15 mm (PermaCem for 1,064 nm) for the few representatives of glass ionomer cements and the other material classes with mean intensities of transmitted light, which were not near zero and thus permitted to calculate absorption lengths.

CONCLUSIONS: The transmission behavior varied between the different material classes and even within, albeit less pronounced. Composites generally showed the highest intensities of transmitted light and are thus least susceptible to surface damage by laser light (810 nm, 940 nm, 980 nm, 1,064 nm). The results can be used to improve and develop laser applications involving purposeful interactions between laser light and dental materials. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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