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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Comparison of temperature change and resulting ablation size induced by a 902-928 MHz and a 2450 MHz microwave ablation system in in-vivo porcine kidneys

Karli Peña, Matthew Ishahak, Stacie Arechavala, Raymond J Leveillee, Nelson Salas
International Journal of Hyperthermia 2019 March 5, : 1-9
30836034

INTRODUCTION: Microwave ablation (MWA) uses heat to ablate undesired tissue. Development of pre-planning algorithms for MWA of small renal masses requires understanding of microwave-tissue interactions at different operating parameters. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of two MWA systems in in-vivo porcine kidneys.

METHODS: Five ablations were performed using a 902-928 MHz system (24 W, 5 min) and a 2450 MHz system (180 W, 2 min). Nonlinear regression analysis of temperature changes measured 5 mm from the antenna axis was completed for the initial 10 s of ablation using the power equation <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"&gt; <mml:mi>Δ</mml:mi> <mml:mi>T</mml:mi> <mml:mo>=</mml:mo> <mml:mi>a</mml:mi> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>t</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>b</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> and after the inflection point using an exponential equation. Thermal damage was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. Long and short axis ablation diameters were measured.

RESULTS: The average 'a' varied significantly between systems (902-928 MHz: 0.0299 ± 0.027, 2450 MHz: 0.1598 ± 0.158), indicating proportionality to the heat source, but 'b' did not (902-928 MHz: 1.910 ± 0.372, 2450 MHz: 2.039 ± 0.366), signifying tissue type dependence. Past the inflection point, average steady-state temperature increases were similar between systems but reached more quickly with the 2450 MHz system. Complete damage was reached at 5 mm for both systems. The 2450 MHz system produced significantly larger short axis ablations (902-928 MHz: 2.40 ± 0.54 cm, 2450 MHz: 3.32 ± 0.41cm).

CONCLUSION: The 2450 MHz system achieved similar steady state temperature increases compared to the 902-928 MHz system, but more quickly due to higher output power. Further investigations using various treatment parameters and precise thermal sensor placement are warranted to refine equation parameters for the development of an ablation model.

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