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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Electronic Health Behaviors Among US Adults With Chronic Disease: Cross-Sectional Survey

Lillian Madrigal, Cam Escoffery
Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019 March 5, 21 (3): e11240
30835242

BACKGROUND: With increased access to technology and the internet, there are many opportunities for utilizing electronic health (eHealth), internet, or technology-delivered health services and information for the prevention and management of chronic diseases.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to explore (1) the differences in technology use, (2) Web-based health information seeking and use behaviors, (3) attitudes toward seeking health information on the Web, and (4) the level of eHealth literacy between adults aged 18 and 64 years with and without chronic disease.

METHODS: A cross-sectional internet survey was conducted in March 2017 with 401 US adults. Participant responses were examined to understand associations between chronic disease status and eHealth behaviors such as internet health-seeking behaviors and Web-based behaviors related to health, tracking health indicators with a mobile app, patient portal use, and preferences for health information.

RESULTS: About 1 in 3 (252/401, 37.2%) participants reported at least 1 chronic disease diagnosis. Seventy-five percent (301/401) of all participants reported having ever searched for health information on the Web. Participants with a chronic disease reported significantly higher instances of visiting and talking to a health care provider based on health information found on the Web (40.0% [48/120] vs 25.8% [46/178], χ2 2 =6.7; P=.01; 43.3% [52/120] vs 27.9% [50/179]; χ2 2 =7.6; P=.006). The uses of health information found on the Web also significantly differed between participants with and without chronic diseases in affecting a decision about how to treat an illness or condition (49.2% [59/120] vs 35.0% [63/180], χ2 3 =6.7; P=.04), changing the way they cope with a chronic condition or manage pain (40.8% [49/120] vs 19.4% [35/180], χ2 2 =16.3; P<.001), and leading them to ask a doctor new questions or get a second opinion (37.5% [45/120] vs 19.6% [35/179], χ2 2 =11.8; P<.001). Chronic disease participants were significantly more likely to be tracking health indicators (43.9% [65/148] vs 28.3%, [71/251] χ2 2 =10.4; P=.006). In addition, participants with chronic disease diagnosis reported significantly higher rates of patient portal access (55.0% [82/149] vs 42.1% [106/252], χ2 2 =6.3; P=.01) and use (40.9% [61/149] vs 21.0% [53/252], χ2 2 =18.2; P<.001). Finally, both groups reported similar perceived skills in using the internet for health information on the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS). The majority of participants responded positively when asked about the usefulness of health information and importance of accessing health resources on the Web.

CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of reported information seeking and use of internet-based health technology among participants with chronic disease may reflect the uptake in eHealth to help manage chronic disease conditions. Health care providers and educators should continue to seek ways to interact and support patients in their management of chronic disease through eHealth platforms, including capitalizing on Web-based resources, patient portals, and mobile phone apps for disease education and monitoring.

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