Diagnosis and Management of a Cardiac Amyloidosis Case Mimicking Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Yasar Sattar, Tania Ruiz Maya, Fnu Zafrullah, Nirav B Patel, Sharaad Latchana
Curēus 2018 December 18, 10 (12): e3749
Cardiac amyloidosis is an acquired heart disease secondary to the deposition of β-pleated amyloid proteins in heart tissue. Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is usually secondary to multiple myeloma and can rapidly deteriorate cardiac function, with high mortality. Up to 50% of AL patients have cardiac involvement presenting as heart failure, conduction abnormalities, and cardiomyopathies. One of the rare presentations is the likely simulation of disease with hypertrophic cardiomyopathies like left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction due to the systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and irregular septal hypertrophy secondary to amyloid deposits. We present a case of cardiac amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma who presented with dynamic LVOT obstruction resembling hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and complicated by acute pulmonary edema. These complicated cases can be initially treated for pulmonary edema with an elevation of the head of the bed, furosemide, and nitroglycerin intravenously. For multiple myeloma, chemotherapy was continued. Beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and aldosterone receptor blocker were avoided due to poor tolerability. After symptomatic control, the patient can likely be scheduled for septal myotomy and the placement of a pacemaker or implantable cardiac defibrillator to prevent any arrhythmias causing sudden cardiac death in these subsets of patients.

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