The role of autoimmunity in women with type 1 diabetes and adverse pregnancy outcome: A missing link

B Groen, T P Links, P P van den Berg, P de Vos, M M Faas
Immunobiology 2019 February 15
The incidence of pregnancy complications in women with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) is greater than in healthy pregnant women. This has mostly been attributed to hyperglycemia. However, despite the implementation of stricter guidelines regarding glycemic control, pregnancy complications remain more common in women with T1D. This may suggest that other etiological factors are involved. We suggest that the immune response may play a role, since the immune response has to adapt during pregnancy in order to facilitate implantation, placental and fetal development, and aberrant immunological adaptations to pregnancy are involved in various pregnancy complications. Since T1D is an autoimmune disorder, the question rises whether the immune response of women with T1D is able to adapt properly during pregnancy. Here we review the current proof and views on the role of aberrant immunological adaptations in pregnancy complications and whether such aberrant adaptations could be involved in the pregnancy complications of T1D patients.

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