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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Influence of tobacco smoke on zinc, cadmium, iron, iron-binding proteins, and low-weight anti-oxidant status in pregnancy

Halina Milnerowicz, Marta Wrześniak, Małgorzata Królik, Katarzyna Kowalska
Inhalation Toxicology 2019 February 22, : 1-8
30794012
Pregnancy and tobacco smoking (TS) each can cause increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; this, in turn, can lead to disorders in iron management and disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of TS and Cd on Fe, Zn, and anti-oxidant levels (i.e. glutathione [GSH], metallothionein [MT]) in the blood of pregnant women. The study reported here evaluated 110 blood samples from pregnant women in their 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. Concentrations of ferritin and transferrin were measured in the serum; Zn, Fe and cotinine in the plasma, that of Cd in whole blood, that for glutathione in red blood cell lysates, and levels of metallothionein both in the plasma and in lysates prepared from isolated erythrocytes. The results indicated there was a decrease in Zn and increase in Cd and metallothionein levels in pregnant women smokers as compared to in nonsmoking counterparts. Differences in intracellular MT concentration were noted both in smoking and nonsmoking women during pregnancy while there were no changes in extracellular MT level. A decline in circulating ferritin and a rise in transferrin during pregnancy was observed in all groups. Based on the results, it was concluded that exposure to TS-associated xenobiotics like Cd could result in higher MT levels in erythrocytes and in pregnant smokers, the major anti-oxidant mechanism that is in place is one being mediated by MT and not by reduced GSH.

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