Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis with concomitant disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in a patient with AIDS from a nonendemic region (California)

Julian Choi, Kia Nikoomanesh, Jusleen Uppal, Sharon Wang
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2019 February 21, 19 (1): 46

BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections, while well studied in the AIDS population, continue to have variable and surprising presentations. Here, we present a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in a 50 year old man with long standing AIDS living in a non-endemic area.

CASE PRESENTATION: Patient presented with a constellation of symptoms, and imaging of the chest showed a pulmonary mass with cavitation, multiple nodules, and ground glass opacities. Further investigations revealed granulomatous lung nodules and fungemia consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum, and coinfection with disseminated nontuberculous mycobateria in a nonendemic area.

CONCLUSIONS: Immunocompromised patients risk co-inhabitation by multiple infectious organisms. Some of these organisms may preside in the host for years prior to reactivation. Clinicians in non endemic areas should therefore be careful to not overlook specific organisms based on a lack of a recent travel history. Physicians in nonendemic areas should become more familiar with the clinical findings and diagnostic approach of infectious such as Histoplasmosis, to ensure earlier recognition and treatment in immunocompromised individuals.

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