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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hemostatic wound dressings: Predicting their effects by in vitro tests

Cornelia Wiegand, Martin Abel, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner, Michael Zieger, Julia Kurz, Hans P Wendel, Sandra Stoppelkamp
Journal of Biomaterials Applications 2019 February 21, : 885328219831095
30791851

BACKGROUND: Application of controlled in vitro techniques can be used as a screening tool for the development of new hemostatic agents allowing quantitative assessment of overall hemostatic potential.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several tests were selected to evaluate the efficacy of cotton gauze, collagen, and oxidized regenerated cellulose for enhancing blood clotting, coagulation, and platelet activation.

RESULTS: Visual inspection of dressings after blood contact proved the formation of blood clots. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the adsorption of blood cells and plasma proteins. Significantly enhanced blood clot formation was observed for collagen together with β-thromboglobulin increase and platelet count reduction. Oxidized regenerated cellulose demonstrated slower clotting rates not yielding any thrombin generation; yet, led to significantly increased thrombin-anti-thrombin-III complex levels compared to the other dressings. As hemostyptica ought to function without triggering any adverse events, induction of hemolysis, instigation of inflammatory reactions, and initiation of the innate complement system were also tested. Here, cotton gauze provoked high PMN elastase and elevated SC5b-9 concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: A range of tests for desired and undesired effects of materials need to be combined to gain some degree of predictability of the in vivo situation. Collagen-based dressings demonstrated the highest hemostyptic properties with lowest adverse reactions whereas gauze did not induce high coagulation activation but rather activated leukocytes and complement.

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