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Tissue response to porous high density polyethylene as a three-dimensional scaffold for bone tissue engineering. An experimental study

Juliana Martínez Rodríguez, Sandra J Renou, María B Guglielmotti, Daniel G Olmedo
Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition 2019 February 19, : 1-10
High density polyethylene (HDPE) is a synthetic biomaterial used as a three-dimensional scaffold for bone defect reconstruction. Reports differ with regard to its biological response, particularly its osteoconductive capacity. The aim of the present work was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate tissue response to porous HDPE. An in vivo study was conducted in rat tibia to evaluate osteogenic capacity, angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and the presence of multinucleated giant cells 14 and 60 days post-biomaterial implantation. Histological examination 14 days post-implantation showed fibrovascular tissue inside pores and on the surface of porous HDPE, acute inflammatory response, scant multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs), and lamellar bone in contact with the biomaterial. An increase in the proportion of lamellar bone tissue, no inflammatory response, and a decrease in the number of MNGCs were observed at 60 days. The histomorphometric study showed a significant time-dependent increase both in the area of bone tissue formed in contact with the porous HDPE (14d: 24.450 ± 11.623 µm2 vs. 60d: 77.104 ± 26.217 µm2 , p < 0.05) and in the percentage of bone tissue in contact with the porous HDPE (osseointegration). A significant decrease in the number of MNGCs was also observed at 60 days post-implantation. Porous HDPE showed adequate osteoconductive properties, and only caused an initial inflammatory response. Although this biomaterial has traditionally been used juxtaosseoulsy, its adequate osteoconductive properties broaden the scope of its application to include intraosseous placement.


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