Comparison of the safety and efficacy of prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion after haploidentical versus matched-sibling PBSCT in very high-risk acute myeloid leukemia

Xiao-Ning Gao, Ji Lin, Li-Jun Wang, Fei Li, Hong-Hua Li, Shu-Hong Wang, Wen-Rong Huang, Chun-Ji Gao, Li Yu, Dai-Hong Liu
Annals of Hematology 2019, 98 (5): 1267-1277
Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) might be used prophylactically to reduce relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for very high-risk leukemia/lymphoma without effective targeted therapy. To compare the safety and efficacy of prophylactic DLI for prevention of relapse after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donors (HID-SCT) and matched-sibling donors (MSD-SCT) in patients with very high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we performed a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 21 HID-SCT and 13 MSD-SCT recipients, displaying similar baseline characteristics except for donor's gender distribution. Grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 100-day post-DLI was higher in HID-SCT group than that in MSD-SCT group (59.5% vs. 30.8%, p = 0.05). The grade 3-4 acute GVHD (17.5% vs. 7.7%), 1-year chronic GVHD (36.6% vs. 33.2%), and severe chronic GVHD (15.3% vs. 27.3%) were not statistically significant different between groups. One-year non-relapse mortality was higher in HID-SCT group than that in MSD-SCT group with marginal significance (27.9% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.061). One-year relapse rate was not statistically significant different between HID-SCT group and MSD-SCT group (21.6% vs. 36.5%, p = 0.543). For HID-SCT recipients, 1-year relapse rate was lower in patients receiving prophylactic DLI than that in a control cohort of eight patients with same very high-risk features but not receiving prophylactic DLI (62.5% vs. 28.3%, p = 0.037). No statistically significant difference was observed in 1-year overall survival (OS, 55.1% vs. 83.9%, p = 0.325) and relapse-free survival (RFS, 50.1% vs. 74.0%, p = 0.419) rates between HID-SCT group and MSD-SCT group. In multivariate analyses, non-remission status prior to transplant, poor-risk gene mutations, and donor's age ≥ 48 years predicted a higher risk of relapse after DLI. Non-remission status prior to transplant predicted inferior OS and RFS. Patient's age ≥ 40 years also predicted an inferior OS. In conclusion, prophylactic DLI was very safe and efficient for reducing relapse in patients with very high-risk AML receiving MSD-SCT. In the recipients of HID-SCT, the application of prophylactic DLI could reduce the risk of relapse, although with a higher incidence of DLI-associated acute GVHD than those of MSD-SCT.

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