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Understanding and treating body dysmorphic disorder.

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also known as dysmorphophobia, is a condition that consists of a distressing or impairing preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in appearance, associated repetitive behaviors and where insight regarding the appearance beliefs is often poor. Despite the fact it is relatively common, occurs around the world and can have a significant impact on a sufferer's functioning, levels of distress, and risk of suicide, the diagnosis is often missed. In this review, we outline the clinical features of BDD including as characterized in the newly published World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases 11, review the prevalence of BDD within different settings, and highlight the reasons why BDD may be underdiagnosed even within psychiatric settings. We additionally review the cultural considerations for BDD and finally discuss the evidence-based treatment approaches for BDD, particularly the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication and cognitive behavioral therapy.

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