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Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Utilizes Both Phospholipase D and Arcanolysin To Mediate Its Uptake into Nonphagocytic Cells.

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is an emerging human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and wound infections. A few studies have suggested that A. haemolyticum is able to induce its uptake into nonphagocytic epithelial cells, but the bacterial factors associated with host cell invasion and the host cell processes involved have yet to be studied. We investigated how two A. haemolyticum virulence factors, arcanolysin (ALN) and phospholipase D (PLD), affect the ability of the bacteria to adhere to and subsequently invade Detroit 562 pharyngeal epithelial cells. The sphingomyelinase activity of phospholipase D was necessary to increase bacterial adherence, while the absence of a functional arcanolysin had no effect on A. haemolyticum adherence but did lead to a decrease in A. haemolyticum invasion into Detroit 562 cells. Because of the known roles of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins in disrupting calcium gradients and inducing F-actin-mediated bacterial internalization, we sought to determine whether ALN and PLD played a similar role in the ability of A. haemolyticum to invade nonphagocytic cells. Elimination of extracellular calcium and inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex or F-actin polymerization also caused a decrease in the ability of A. haemolyticum to invade Detroit 562 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that A. haemolyticum utilizes phospholipase D primarily for adherence and utilizes arcanolysin primarily for invasion into Detroit 562 cells in a process dependent on extracellular calcium and F-actin polymerization. Our work marks the first insight into how the individual activities of arcanolysin and phospholipase D affect A. haemolyticum host-pathogen interactions using the biologically relevant Detroit 562 cell line.

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