JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Central precocious puberty, functional and tumor-related

Leandro Soriano-Guillén, Jesús Argente
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2019, 33 (3): 101262
30733078
Precocious puberty is defined as the appearance of secondary sex characteristics before 8 years of age in girls and before 9 years of age in boys. Central precocious puberty (CPP) is diagnosed when activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is identified. It is a rare disease with a clear female predominance. A background of international adoption increases its risk, with other environmental factors such as endocrine disruptors also being associated with CPP. The causes of CPP are heterogeneous, with alterations of the CNS being of special interest. Physical injuries of the CNS are more frequent in boys, while idiopathic etiology is more prevalent among girls. However, in the last decade the number of idiopathic cases has diminished thanks to the discovery of mutations in different genes, including KISS1, KISS1R, MKRN3, and DLK1 that cause CPP. For the diagnosis of CPP, hormone studies are needed in addition to the clinical data regarding signs of pubertal onset. For this purpose, the GnRH test continues to be the gold standard. Imaging analyses, such as bone age and brain MRI, are also very useful. Furthermore, genetic testing must be incorporated in the diagnosis of CPP, especially in familial cases. Early puberty has been related to various consequences in the medium and long term such as behavioral problems, breast cancer, obesity, and metabolic comorbidities. However, there are few studies that have exclusively analyzed patients with CPP. GnRH analogs are the most frequent treatment election with the main objective being to improve adult height. Currently, there are new formulations that are being investigated.

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