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Robot-assisted radical cystectomy: patient selection and special considerations.

Robot-assisted (RA) procedures are increasingly being performed as minimally invasive surgical approaches. Less insensible losses due to a closed abdomen, smaller incisions with less retractor strain, decreased analgesic requirements, and earlier postoperative ambulation are suggested advantages of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). Patients who undergo open radical cystectomy are also candidates for RARC procedure. However, the steep Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum develop a non-physiological condition. Intra-abdominal adhesions preventing the placement of the ports and patients who cannot tolerate the pneumoperitoneum and/or steep Trendelenburg position are special contraindications of RARC. Besides, body mass index >30 kg/m2 , presence of extravesical disease, bulky lymphadenopathy, previous vascular surgery, previous distal colorectal surgery, previous pelvic radiation, previous pelvic trauma, and/or preexisting cardiovascular/pulmonary disease that is compromised with positioning are not certainly contraindicated but unwanted conditions in which the RARC may be performed successfully as the surgeons gain experience.

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