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Characteristics of Enterobacter cloacae prosthetic joint infections.

OBJECTIVES: Enterobacter cloacae prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are rare and poorly documented.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective and monocentric study in an orthopedic unit supporting complex bone and joint infections. Between 2012 and 2016 we collected background, clinical, biological, and microbiological data from 20 patients presenting with prosthetic joint infection and positive for E. cloacae, as well as data on their surgical and medical treatment and outcome.

RESULTS: Infections were localized in the hip (n=14), knee (n=5), or ankle (n=1). The median time between arthroplasty and septic revision was three years. Fourteen patients (70%) had undergone at least two surgeries due to previous prosthetic joint infections. The median time between the last surgery and the revision for E. cloacae infection was 31 days. Eleven patients (55%) were infected with ESBL-producing strains. The most frequently used antibiotics were carbapenems (n=9), cefepime (n=7), quinolones (n=7), and fosfomycin (n=4). The infection was cured in 15 patients (78.9%) after a 24-month follow-up. Five patients had a recurrent infection with another microorganism and four patients had a relapse of E. cloacae infection. The global success rate was 52.7% (58.3% for DAIR and 75% for DAIR+ciprofloxacin).

CONCLUSION: Prosthetic joint infections due to E. cloacae usually occur early after the last prosthetic surgery, typically in patients with complex surgical and medical histories. The success rate seems to be increased when DAIR is associated with ciprofloxacin.

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