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Four courses versus eight courses of adjuvant S-1 for patients with stage II gastric cancer (JCOG1104 [OPAS-1]): an open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority, randomised trial

Takaki Yoshikawa, Masanori Terashima, Junki Mizusawa, Souya Nunobe, Yasunori Nishida, Takanobu Yamada, Masahide Kaji, Norimasa Fukushima, Shinji Hato, Yasuhiro Choda, Hiroshi Yabusaki, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Seiji Ito, Atsushi Takeno, Takashi Yasuda, Yasuyuki Kawachi, Hiroshi Katayama, Haruhiko Fukuda, Narikazu Boku, Takeshi Sano, Mitsuru Sasako
Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2019, 4 (3): 208-216

BACKGROUND: Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for 1 year (corresponding to eight courses) is standard care for stage II gastric cancer. Whether the duration of S-1 could be shortened to 6 months (corresponding to four courses) without worsening survival is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the non-inferiority of four courses of S-1 compared with eight courses of S-1 for patients with stage II gastric cancer.

METHODS: We did a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial at 59 hospitals in Japan. Patients aged 20-80 years with stage II adenocarcinoma of the stomach were randomly assigned (1:1) to eight courses or four courses of S-1. Randomisation was done by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Data Center website, using a minimisation method with a random component using institution, stage (IIA vs IIB), age (<70 years vs ≥70 years), and mode of operation (open gastrectomy with bursectomy vs open gastrectomy without bursectomy vs laparoscopic gastrectomy) as adjustment factors. One course was 80 mg/day per m2 of S-1 administered for 4 weeks followed by a rest for 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival, analysed by intention to treat, with a non-inferiority margin for the hazard ratio (HR) set at 1·37. This study is registered at UMIN-Clinical Trial Registry, number UMIN000007306.

FINDINGS: Between Feb 16, 2012, and March 19, 2017, 590 patients were enrolled (295 per group). 528 (89%) patients were analysed at the first planned interim analysis in March, 2017, at which time the point estimate of HR for the four-course group compared with the eight-course group was 2·52 (95% CI 1·11-5·77), which exceeded 1·37 and met the prespecified criteria for early termination. Predictive probability for showing non-inferiority at the final analysis was calculated to be 2·9%. The study was stopped for futility. Updated 3-year relapse-free survival analysed in May, 2017, was 93·1% (95% CI 87·8-96·1) for the eight-course group and 89·8% (84·2-93·5) for the four-course group (HR 1·84, 95% CI 0·93-3·63). The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was neutropenia, observed in 46 (16%) patients in the eight-course group and 51 (17%) patients in the four-course group.

INTERPRETATION: S-1 for 1 year should remain as standard adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II gastric cancer.

FUNDING: Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development; the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan; the National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund, Japan.


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