Towards patient-specific management of trauma hemorrhage: the effect of resuscitation therapy on parameters of thromboelastometry

Nicole P Juffermans, Mathijs R Wirtz, Kirsten Balvers, Kjersti Baksaas-Aasen, Susan van Dieren, Christine Gaarder, Paul A Naess, Simon Stanworth, Pär I Johansson, Jakob Stensballe, Marc Maegele, J C Goslings, Karim Brohi
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH 2019, 17 (3): 441-448
Essentials The response of thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters to therapy is unknown. We prospectively recruited hemorrhaging trauma patients in six level-1 trauma centres in Europe. Blood products and pro-coagulants prevent further derangement of ROTEM results. ROTEM algorithms can be used to treat and monitor trauma induced coagulopathy. SUMMARY: Background Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) can detect trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) and is used in transfusion algorithms. The response of ROTEM to transfusion therapy is unknown. Objectives To determine the response of ROTEM profiles to therapy in bleeding trauma patients. Patients/Methods A prospective multicenter study in bleeding trauma patients (receiving ≥ 4 red blood cell [RBC] units) was performed. Blood was drawn in the emergency department, after administration of 4, 8 and 12 RBC units and 24 h post-injury. The response of ROTEM to plasma, platelets (PLTs), tranexamic acid (TXA) and fibrinogen products was evaluated in the whole cohort as well as in the subgroup of patients with ROTEM values indicative of TIC. Results Three hundred and nine bleeding and shocked patients were included. A mean dose of 3.8 g of fibrinogen increased FIBTEM CA5 by 5.2 mm (IQR: 4.1-6.3 mm). TXA administration decreased lysis by 5.4% (4.3-6.5%). PLT transfusion prevented further derangement of parameters of clot formation. The effect of PLTs on EXTEM ca5 values was more pronounced in patients with a ROTEM value indicative of TIC than in the whole cohort. Plasma transfusion decreased EXTEM clotting time by 3.1 s (- 10 s to 3.9 s) in the whole cohort and by 10.6 s (- 45 s to 24 s) in the subgroup of patients with a ROTEM value indicative of TIC. Conclusion The effects of therapy on ROTEM values were small, but prevented further derangement of test results. In patients with ROTEM values indicative of TIC, the efficacy of PLTs and plasma in correcting deranged ROTEM parameters is possibly more robust.

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