Pre-operative cardiac optimisation: a directed review

L K K Lee, P N W Tsai, K Y Ip, M G Irwin
Anaesthesia 2019, 74 Suppl 1: 67-79
Cardiac events remain the leading cause of peri-operative morbidity and mortality, and patients undergoing major surgery are exposed to significant risks which may be preventable and modifiable. Proper assessment and management of various cardiac conditions in the peri-operative period by anaesthetists can markedly improve patient safety, especially in high-risk patient populations. This involves understanding and applying current evidence-based practice and international guidelines on the main aspects of cardiac optimisation, including management of patients with hypertension, chronic heart failure, valvular heart diseases and cardiac implantable electronic devices. Peri-operative management of antihypertensive drugs in keeping with the current best evidence is discussed. Pre-operative cardiac risk assessment and cardiac biomarkers can be used to help predict and quantify peri-operative adverse cardiac events. There is an increasing need for anaesthetist-led services, including focused transthoracic echocardiography and management of implantable cardiac electronic devices. Anaesthetists should be encouraged to play a proactive role in pre-operative risk stratification and make timely multidisciplinary referrals if necessary. A personalised approach to pre-operative cardiac optimisation enables a safer peri-operative journey for at-risk patients undergoing major surgery.

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Fred Kemah

In addition, pre operative assessment also involves optimisation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients. The role of a nephrologist is important in patients with advanced kidney disease.

Fred KEMAH, Consultant Cardiologist, London, UK


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