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Imaging Patterns of Pediatric Pulmonary Blastomycosis.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to characterize and update the radiologic patterns of pediatric pulmonary blastomycosis, and correlate the radiologic patterns with patient age.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients 0-18 years old with pulmonary blastomycosis who underwent chest imaging from 2005 to 2016 were included in this study. The following data were collected: age, sex, clinical information, and imaging findings including presence of extrapulmonary involvement and scarring on follow-up examinations. Concordance between radiography and CT was analyzed.

RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (28 boys and eight girls) ranging in age from 3 months to 17 years (mean, 10.5 years) were identified. Consolidation was found in 94.4% of patients and was unilateral in 76.5% of cases and bilateral in 23.5%. Upper (70.6%) and middle (47.1%) lobes were more frequently involved. Air bronchograms were identified in 76.5% of patients with consolidations, masslike consolidation was found in 55.9%, cavitation in 38.2%, and bubbly pattern (i.e., multiple small cavities) in 32.4%. In all patients younger than 5 years, consolidations involved multiple lobes. In 67.6% of patients, consolidations were associated with the following additional pulmonary or pleural abnormalities: pulmonary nodules (50% of patients), diffuse patchy opacification (26.5%), reticulonodular pattern (41.2%), atelectasis (5.9%), pleural effusion (20.6%), and hilar lymphadenopathy (23.5%). Pulmonary scarring was found in 70.4% of patients. Five patients had extrapulmonary involvement. The concordance between radiography and CT was excellent for location and extension of consolidation and diagnosis of cavitation, bubbly pattern, and nodules.

CONCLUSION: The most common pattern of lung involvement from pulmonary blastomycosis in our series was a combination of consolidations with bilateral lung nodules and reticulonodular opacification.

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