JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Chondromyxoid Fibroma of the Pelvis: Institutional Case Series With a Focus on Distinctive Features.

Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a relatively uncommon benign bone tumor of cartilaginous differentiation. The primary pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of CMF is confusion with a high-grade chondrosarcoma, owing to the atypical stellate and spindled cells set within a chondromyxoid background. CMF is particularly challenging to diagnose within the pelvis, where clinical suspicion for chondrosarcoma is high and benign lesions may grow to a large size to occupy the pelvic bones. In our practice, we noted this difficulty in several consecutive cases, especially when older patients presented with CMF within the pelvis. This prompted an institutional retrospective case review of all CMF within the pelvis. In 10 cases, we found overall that CMF of pelvis occurred in an older age range (mean age = 48.6 years), was larger in size (mean size = 6.0 cm), and showed a higher rate of soft tissue extension (50%) as compared with prior reports of nonpelvic CMF. Typical histologic features of CMF were seen in all cases; however, a high frequency of dystrophic calcification (50%) and necrosis (30%) was observed. Of interest, these aggregate demographic, radiologic, and histologic findings are all consistent with a benign neoplasm that has grown undetected within the pelvis over a long period of time. Recognition of these differences between pelvic CMF and tumors involving other sites will aid in avoiding misdiagnosis of this uncommon entity.

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