JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Glaucoma secondary to intraocular tumors: mechanisms and management

David A Camp, Prashant Yadav, Lauren A Dalvin, Carol L Shields
Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 2019, 30 (2): 71-81
30562240

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glaucoma secondary to intraocular tumors is important to consider in eyes with a known tumor and those with unilateral or refractory glaucoma. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mechanisms and management of intraocular tumors with related secondary glaucoma.

RECENT FINDINGS: Several intraocular tumors can lead to glaucoma, including iris melanoma, iris metastasis, iris lymphoma, trabecular meshwork melanoma, choroidal melanoma, choroidal metastasis, retinoblastoma, and medulloepithelioma. The mechanisms for glaucoma include solid tumor invasion into the angle, tumor seeding into the angle, angle closure, and iris neovascularization. Management of the tumor can lead to resolution of glaucoma. Management of the secondary glaucoma may involve medical therapy, transscleral cyclophotocoagulation, laser trabeculoplasty, and potentially antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) can be considered for eyes with treated, regressed posterior segment malignancies if there is no iris or ciliary body involvement. Importantly, avoidance of MIGS, filtering, or shunting surgery in eyes with active malignancies is emphasized.

SUMMARY: Intraocular tumors can produce secondary glaucoma. Treatment of the primary tumor can sometimes resolve the glaucoma. Topical, oral, or laser therapies can be considered. Avoidance of MIGS, filtering, or shunting surgery is advised until the malignancy is completely regressed.

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