Pediatric open-globe injury in a university-based tertiary hospital

Faisal AlDahash, Ahmed Mousa, Priscilla W Gikandi, Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar
European Journal of Ophthalmology 2020, 30 (2): 269-274

BACKGROUND: To investigate epidemiology, etiology, and outcomes after repair of pediatric open-globe injury.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients ⩽18 years who underwent primary open-globe repair.

RESULTS: A total of 213 patients were identified. Male-female ratio was 1.44:1. Type of injury was penetration in 157 (74.4%) cases, rupture in 52 (24.4%) cases, and perforation in 2 (0.9%) cases. Knife injuries were the most common cause, affecting 38/196 (19.4%), followed by metallic object in 37/196 (18.9%) patients, glass in 26/196 (13.3%) patients, and pen or pencil in 24/196 (12.8%). Predictors of good visual outcome defined as (⩾20/40) were good initial visual acuity (⩾20/40; p < 0.0001), time from injury to arrival at the emergency room >24 h (p = 0.038), size of wound less than 10 mm (p < 0.0001), absence of iris prolapse (p < 0.0001), deep anterior chamber at presentation (p < 0.0001), absence of hyphema (p = 0.043), intact lens (p < 0.0001), and no retinal detachment during follow-up (p < 0.0001). A total of 27 (12.7%) cases were documented to have retinal detachment at any time during follow-up period. Predictors of retinal detachment were perforation and rupture (p < 0.0001), whereas penetration was not associated with development of retinal detachment, size of the wound ⩾10 mm (p < 0.0001), initial visual acuity ⩽20/200 (p < 0.0001), lens injury (p < 0.0001), and development of endophthalmitis (p < 0.027). Eight (3.7%) eyes had the clinical diagnosis of posttraumatic endophthalmitis.

CONCLUSIONS: The most common type of injury was penetration and the most common tool was knife. Visual outcome was affected by the initial presentation. Retinal detachment was a significant predictor of a worse final visual outcome.

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