Efficacy of Alveolar Ridge Preservation after Maxillary Molar Extraction in Reducing Crestal Bone Resorption and Sinus Pneumatization: A Multicenter Prospective Case-Control Study

Teresa Lombardi, Fabio Bernardello, Federico Berton, Davide Porrelli, Antonio Rapani, Alvise Camurri Piloni, Luca Fiorillo, Roberto Di Lenarda, Claudio Stacchi
BioMed Research International 2018, 2018: 9352130

Aim: To evaluate, with three-dimensional analysis, the effectiveness of alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) after maxillary molar extraction in reducing alveolar bone resorption and maxillary sinus pneumatization when compared to unassisted socket healing.

Methods: Patients were included in the study following inclusion criteria and underwent minimally traumatic maxillary molar extraction followed by ARP using synthetic nanohydroxyapatite (Fisiograft Bone, Ghimas, Italy) (test group) or unassisted socket healing (control group). Cone-beam computerized tomographies (CBCT) were performed immediately after tooth extraction (T0) and 6 months postoperatively (T1). CBCTs were superimposed by using a specific software (Amira, Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) and the following items were analyzed in both groups: (i) postextractive maxillary sinus floor expansion in coronal direction and (ii) postextractive alveolar bone dimensional changes (both vertical and horizontal). All data were tested for normality and equality of variance and subsequently analyzed by independent samples T-test and Mann-Whitney test.

Results: Thirty patients were treated by three centers and twenty-six (test n=13; control n=13) were included in the final analysis. Mean sinus pneumatization at T1 was 0.69±0.48 mm in the test group and 1.04±0.67 mm in the control group (p=0.15). Mean vertical reduction of the alveolar bone at T1 was 1.62±0.49 mm in the test group and 2.01±0.84 mm in the control group (p=0.08). Mean horizontal resorption of crestal bone at T1 was 2.73±1.68 mm in test group and 3.63±2.24 mm in control group (p=0.24).

Conclusions: It could be suggested that ARP performed after maxillary molar extraction may reduce the entity of sinus pneumatization and alveolar bone resorption, compared to unassisted socket healing. This technique could decrease the necessity of advanced regenerative procedures prior to dental implant placement in posterior maxilla.

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