Targeting peptidylarginine deiminase reduces neutrophil extracellular trap formation and tissue injury in severe acute pancreatitis

Raed Madhi, Milladur Rahman, Dler Taha, Matthias Mörgelin, Henrik Thorlacius
Journal of Cellular Physiology 2018 December 4
Recent evidence suggests that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role in the development of acute pancreatitis (AP). Herein, we examined the role of peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD), which has been shown to regulate NET formation, in severe AP. AP was induced by retrograde of taurocholate infusion into pancreatic duct in C57BL/6 mice. PAD was pharmacologically inhibited using Cl-amidine, a pan-PAD inhibitor. Pancreata were collected, and histones, citrullinated histone 3, chemokines, myeloperoxidase, and NETs were quantified. Chemokines, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and DNA-histone complexes were determined in plasma samples. Infusion of taurocholate induced formation of NETs in pancreatic tissues of mice. Pretreatment with Cl-amidine markedly reduced the NET formation in the inflamed pancreas. Moreover, inhibition of PAD decreased the levels of blood amylase as well as edema, acinar cell necrosis, hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration in the pancreas of animals with AP. Administration of Cl-amidine attenuated the myeloperoxidase levels in the pancreas and lung of mice exposed to taurocholate. In addition, Cl-amidine decreased pancreatic levels of CXC chemokines, plasma levels of IL-6, and MMP-9 in mice with severe AP. This study shows that Cl-amidine is a potent inhibitor of NET formation in severe AP. Also, our results suggest that PAD regulates pathological inflammation and tissue damage in the inflamed pancreas. Thus, targeting PAD might be a useful strategy to treat patients with severe AP.


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