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[Clinical features and risk factors of surgical complications after intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy]

Q Y Qin, T H Ma, J Cai, X Y Huang, Y L Wu, H M Wang, H Wang, L Wang
Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery] 2018 December 1, 56 (12): 892-899
30497115
Objective: To explore clinical features and prognosis factors of surgical complications after intersphincteric resection (ISR) for low rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods: The clinical data of 132 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent ISR following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy from September 2010 to June 2017 at Department of Colorectal Surgery, Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively reviewed. There were 100 males and 32 females, with the age of (52.9±11.4) years and distance to anal verge of 3.9 cm. Records of perioperative complication (POC) within 30 days after surgery, anastomotic leakage (AL), and anastomotic stenosis (AS) were analyzed. POC was recorded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. AL was graded by ISREC system and classified into the early AL within 30 days after surgery and delayed AL beyond 30 days. AS was defined as narrowing of the bowel lumen at the anastomosis that prevented passage through a colonoscope with a 12 mm diameter. According to the shape of narrowing, AS was recorded as the stenosis in situ or stenosis with long-segment bowel above. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify risk factors of anastomotic complications. Results: Among the 132 patients, full-dose radiotherapy and diverting stoma were performed in 128 (97.0%) patients, respectively. In entire cohort, AL was found in 41 (31.1%) patients, including 32 patients with clinical leakage (24.2%). The median time for diagnosis of AL was 37 days (2 to 214 days) after surgery. There were 25 patients (18.9%) who were diagnosed with delayed AL beyond 30 days. Chronic presacral sinus formation was detected in 22 of 129 (17.1%) patients at 12 months from surgery. Among the 128 eligible patients, 36 (28.1%) were diagnosed as AS, including 24 (18.8%) patients with stenosis in situ and 12 (9.4%) patients with bowel stenosis above. After a median follow-up of 26 months, 7(5.3%) patients received permanent colostomy and the other 20(15.2%) patients retained a persistent ileostomy, owing to anastomotic complications. Results of multivariate analysis showed that radiation colitis was an independent prognosis factor of AL after ISR ( OR =5.04, 95% CI: 2.05 to 12.43, P =0.000); male gender ( OR =5.19, 95% CI: 1.24 to 21.75, P =0.024) and AL ( OR =8.49, 95% CI: 3.32 to 21.70, P =0.000) were independent prognosis factors of AS after ISR. Conclusions: Surgical complications are common after ISR for low rectal cancer patients with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. A high rate of AL is observed after long-term follow-up, which is associated with AS. Increasing awareness of anastomotic complications after ISR should be raised, especially for male patients with radiation colitis.

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