JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Emicizumab, the bispecific antibody to factors IX/IXa and X/Xa, potentiates coagulation function in factor XI-deficient plasma in vitro.

Essentials Emicizumab mimics factor (F)VIIIa cofactor function, augments the intrinsic tenase activity. We assessed the emicizumab-driven hemostatic function in FXI-deficient plasmas. Emicizumab improved the coagulation potentials in severe FXI-deficient plasma. Emicizumab may provide a possibility for clinical application in patients with FXI deficiency. SUMMARY: Background Patients with factor (F)XI deficiency commonly present with markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT), although bleeding phenotypes are heterogeneous. Emicizumab, a bispecific monoclonal antibody to FIX/FIXa and FX/FXa, mimics FVIIIa cofactor function on phospholipid (PL) surfaces. Antibody reactions were designed, therefore, to augment mechanisms during the propagation phase of blood coagulation. Aim To assess emicizumab-driven hemostatic function in FXI-deficient plasmas. Methods and Results Standard ellagic acid (Elg)/PL-based APTTs of different FXI-deficient plasmas (n = 13; FXI activity, < 1 IU dl-1 ) were markedly shortened dose dependently by the presence of emicizumab. To further analyze the effects of emicizumab, clot waveform analysis (CWA) in FXI-deficient plasmas with emicizumab, triggered by tissue factor (TF)/Elg demonstrated improvements in both clot times, reflecting the initiation phase, and coagulation velocity, which represents the propagation phase. Emicizumab also enhanced the TF/Elg-triggered thrombin generation in FXI-deficient plasmas dose-dependently although the degree of enhancement varied in individual cases. Thrombin generation with either FVII-deficient plasma or FIX-deficient plasma treated with anti-FXI antibody showed little or no increase by the co-presence of emicizumab, suggesting that the accelerated thrombin generation in FXI-deficient plasmas by emicizumab should depend on the FIXa-involved coagulation propagation initially triggered by FVIIa/TF. The ex vivo addition of emicizumab to whole blood from three patients with severe FXI deficiency demonstrated modest, dose-dependent improvements in Ca2+ -triggered thromboelastograms (NATEM mode). Conclusion Emicizumab appeared to improve coagulation function in severe FXI-deficient plasma, and might provide possibilities for clinical application in patients with FXI deficiency.

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