Impact of one versus two doses of mesenchymal stromal cells on lung and cardiovascular repair in experimental emphysema

Hananda A Poggio, Mariana A Antunes, Nazareth N Rocha, Jamil Z Kitoko, Marcelo M Morales, Priscilla C Olsen, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Fernanda F Cruz, Patricia R M Rocco
Stem Cell Research & Therapy 2018 November 8, 9 (1): 296

BACKGROUND: A single administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been shown to reduce lung inflammation in experimental elastase-induced emphysema; however, effects were limited in terms of lung-tissue repair and cardiac function improvement. We hypothesized that two doses of MSCs could induce further lung and cardiovascular repair by mitigating inflammation and remodeling in a model of emphysema induced by multiple elastase instillations. We aimed to comparatively investigate the effects of one versus two doses of MSCs, administered 1 week apart, in a murine model of elastase-induced emphysema.

METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control (CTRL) and emphysema (E) groups. Mice in the E group received porcine pancreatic elastase (0.2 IU, 50 μL) intratracheally once weekly for four consecutive weeks; the CTRL animals received sterile saline (50 μL) using the same protocol. Three hours after the last instillation, the E group was further randomized to receive either saline (SAL) or murine MSCs (105 cells) intratracheally, in one or two doses (1 week apart). Fourteen days later, mice were euthanized, and all data analyzed.

RESULTS: Both one and two doses of MSCs improved lung mechanics, reducing keratinocyte-derived chemokine and transforming growth factor-β levels in lung homogenates, total cell and macrophage counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and collagen fiber content in airways and blood vessels, as well as increasing vascular endothelial growth factor in lung homogenates and elastic fiber content in lung parenchyma. However, only the two-dose group exhibited reductions in tumor necrosis factor-α in lung tissue, BALF neutrophil and lymphocyte count, thymus weight, and total cellularity, as well as CD8+ cell counts and cervical lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, as well as further increased elastic fiber content in the lung parenchyma and reduced severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of MSCs enhanced lung repair and improvement in cardiac function, while inducing T cell immunosuppression, mainly of CD8+ cells, in elastase-induced emphysema.

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