Novel homozygous inactivating mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor gene in neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism responding to cinacalcet therapy: A case report and literature review

Xiaomei Sun, Liang Huang, Jin Wu, Yuhong Tao, Fan Yang
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018, 97 (45): e13128

RATIONALE: Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) mutations can cause life-threatening neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT). The medical management of NSHPT is often challenging and complex. Here, we present a case of NSHPT caused by a novel homozygous CaSR mutation.

PATIENT CONCERNS: A Chinese female infant presented with poor feeding, constipation, severe hypotonia, and periodic bradycardia. Biochemistry tests revealed markedly elevated serum levels of Ca and parathyroid hormone (PTH).

DIAGNOSES: Genetic sequencing revealed a previously undescribed CaSR mutation in exon 3 (c.242T>A; p.I81K). A diagnosis of NSHPT secondary to homozygously inherited familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia syndrome was established.

INTERVENTIONS: Cinacalcet was administered after the common treatments (low-calcium intake, hydration, and furosemide), calcitonin, and pamidronate therapy all failed.

OUTCOMES: Serum Ca decreased and stabilized with cinacalcet therapy. During a 10-month follow-up, total calcium was maintained within the high-normal range and PTH was normalized.

LESSONS: A trial of cinacalcet therapy might be undertaken in cases of NSHPT while definitive results of the genetic analysis are awaited.

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