Serum electrolyte imbalance and prognostic factors of postoperative death in adult traumatic brain injury patients: A prospective cohort study

Pathomporn Pin-On, Ananchanok Saringkarinkul, Yodying Punjasawadwong, Srisuluck Kacha, Drusakorn Wilairat
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018, 97 (45): e13081
Electrolyte imbalances are common in traumatic brain injury. It shares the cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Types of intravenous fluid resuscitation, osmotic diuretics, massive blood loss, and intracranial pathology were considered as the potential factors to worsen electrolyte abnormalities in these patients. The aims of this study were to report the incidence of electrolyte imbalance in traumatic brain injured patients and to assess the association between electrolyte imbalance and other prognostic factors to death within 24 hours of the injury.The study was carried out in the northern university, tertiary-care hospital of Thailand. The patients aged from 18 to 65 years old, presented with traumatic brain injury, and needed for emergency craniotomy were included. We excluded the patients who had minor neurosurgical procedures, pregnancy, and undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the Emergency Department.Among 145 patients recruited, 101 (70%) had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≤ 8, 25 (17%) had GCS score 9 to 12, and 19 (13%) had GCS score 13 to 15. The most common diagnosis were subdural hematoma and epidural hematoma, 51% and 36%, respectively. Hypokalemia was the most common electrolyte imbalance at 65.5%. The results of the use of a multivariable logistic regression model show that the odds of postoperative death in TBI patients were increased with high levels of blood glucose, hypernatremia, and acidosis.Hypokalemia was the most common electrolyte imbalance in TBI patients. Hypernatremia, acidosis, and hyperglycemia significantly increased the odds ratio of death in the first 24 hours post TBI.

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