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Focal Rosai-Dorfman disease coexisting with lymphoma in the same anatomic site: a localized histiocytic proliferation associated with MAPK/ERK pathway activation

Sofia Garces, C Cameron Yin, Keyur P Patel, Joseph D Khoury, John T Manning, Shaoying Li, Jie Xu, Sergio Pina-Oviedo, Malisha R Johnson, Sergio González, Montserrat Molgó, Roberto Ruiz-Cordero, L Jeffrey Medeiros
Modern Pathology 2018 October 15
Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocytic disorder shown to have gene mutations that activate the MAPK/ERK pathway in at least one-third of cases. Most patients with Rosai-Dorfman disease present with bulky lymphadenopathy or extranodal disease, but rarely Rosai-Dorfman disease is detected concomitantly with lymphoma in the same biopsy specimen. The underlying molecular mechanisms of focal Rosai-Dorfman disease occurring in the setting of lymphoma have not been investigated. We report 12 cases of Rosai-Dorfman disease and lymphoma involving the same anatomic site. There were five men and seven women (age, 23 to 77 years) who underwent lymph node (n = 11) or skin (n = 1) biopsy; the lymphomas included nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 6), classical Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 4), small lymphocytic lymphoma (n = 1) and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (n = 1). The foci of Rosai-Dorfman disease in all cases had S100 protein-positive histiocytes undergoing emperipolesis. No patients had Rosai-Dorfman disease at other anatomic sites at initial diagnosis and at last follow-up (median, 40 months). We performed immunohistochemical analysis to assess activity of the MAPK/ERK pathway in the Rosai-Dorfman disease foci. We also micro-dissected disease foci and analyzed 146 genes using next-generation sequencing in four cases with adequate DNA; the panel included genes previously reported to be mutated in Rosai-Dorfman disease. All cases were negative for gene mutations. Nevertheless, all cases were positive for cyclin D1 and most cases showed p-ERK expression indicating that the MAPK/ERK pathway is active in the histiocytes of focal Rosai-Dorfman disease. We conclude that focal Rosai-Dorfman disease coexisting with lymphoma is a clinically benign and localized histiocytic proliferation. These data also indicate that the MAPK/ERK pathway is active in focal Rosai-Dorfman disease although we did not identify activating mutations. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of focal Rosai-Dorfman disease is different from that of usual cases of Rosai-Dorfman disease.


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