Optimization of Vagal Stimulation Protocol Based on Spontaneous Breathing Rate

Liliane Appratto De Souza, Janaina Barcellos Ferreira, Andressa Silveira de Oliveira Schein, Daniela Ravizzoni Dartora, Adenauer Girardi Casali, Catharina M Carvalho Scassola, Eleonora Tobaldini, Nicola Montano, Stefano Guzzetti, Alberto Porta, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Karina Rabello Casali
Frontiers in Physiology 2018, 9: 1341
Controlled breathing maneuver is being widely applied for cardiovascular autonomic control evaluation and cardiac vagal activation through reduction of breathing rate (BR). However, this maneuver presented contradictory results depending on the protocol and the chosen BR. These variations may be related to the individual intrinsic profile baseline sympathetic tonus, as described before by others. In this study, we evaluated the effect of controlled breathing maneuver on cardiovascular autonomic control in 26 healthy subjects allocated into two protocols: (1) controlled breathing in three different rates (10, 15, and 20 breaths/min) and (2) controlled breathing in rates normalized by the individual spontaneous breathing rate (SBR) at 100, 80, 70, and 50%. Our results showed autonomic responses favorable to vagal modulation with the lower BR maneuvers. Nevertheless, while this activation was variable using the standard protocol, all participants of the normalized protocol demonstrated an increase of vagal modulation at 80% BR (HFnu 80 = 67.5% vs. 48.2%, p < 0.0001). These results suggest that controlled breathing protocols to induce vagal activation should consider the SBR, being limited to values moderately lower than the baseline.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"