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The Mechanisms of Dietary Phytoestrogen as a Potential Treatment and Prevention Agent against Alzheimer's Disease

Azhar Hussain, Elsa S Tabrez, Adil Muhammad, Jagannadha Rao Peela
Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression 2018, 28 (4): 321-327
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major dementia disease worldwide with an increasing incidence rate among the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disease with symptoms starting slowly and then progressing over time. There has been extensive research on AD prevention and treatment; however, there is no cure as of yet. Several drugs are being researched for the treatment and prevention of AD, with a rising interest in specific dietary compounds as potential interventions with lower side effects. One such dietary compound being tested is phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens are chemically, structurally, and functionally similar to estrogen, which has numerous functions as a cognition-promoting agent; although, as a supplement it can be damaging. Phytoestrogens have the unique ability to substitute for estrogen in elderly individuals with Alzheimer's disease and depleted estrogen levels. This paper aims to contribute to the collective understanding of phytoestrogen's role in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease by describing its various mechanisms, including its ability to decrease amyloid beta peptide production, promote calcium outflow and acetylcholine release, and reduce Tau protein phosphorylation. The paper also addresses phytoestrogen's role as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent for the cholinergic neurons associated with Alzheimer's disease.


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