Bone-anchored maxillary protraction in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion

Yijin Ren, Ralph Steegman, Arjan Dieters, Johan Jansma, Harry Stamatakis
Clinical Oral Investigations 2018 October 10

OBJECTIVE: This prospective controlled study evaluated the effect of bone-anchored maxillary protraction therapy in cleft children with Class III malocclusion using CBCT-derived 3D surface models.

MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: Eighteen cleft patients between 10 and 12 years old were included. Intermaxillary elastics were worn after the placement of four zygoma bone plates for 18 months. Uniquely, three age-matched untreated groups including both cleft subjects and non-cleft subjects with Class III malocclusion served as controls. Profile photos and CBCT scans for each patient were taken before (T0) and 18 months after the protraction (T1). 3D measurements were made on CBCT surface models from the treatment group using tomographic color mapping method. Cephalometric measurements were made on lateral cephalogram reconstructed from the CBCT scans and were compared with those obtained from the control groups.

RESULTS: Two thirds of the treatment subjects showed improved lip projection towards more convex facial profile. The most significant skeletal changes on 3D surface models were observed at the zygomatic regions (mean 1.5-mm forward, downward, and outward displacement) and at the maxillary complex (mean 1.5-mm forward displacement). Compared with the control groups, the treatment subjects showed significant increase in the SNA and ANB angles, increased Wits appraisal, a more forward movement of point A and overjet improvement (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: BAMP in cleft patients gives a significant forward displacement of the zygomaxillairy complex in favor of the Class III treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This treatment method shows clearly favorable outcome in cleft patients after 1.5 years of BAMP.

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