Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Salam Vatandost, Marzieh Jahani, Ali Afshari, Mohammad Reza Amiri, Rashid Heidarimoghadam, Younes Mohammadi
Nutrition and Health 2018 October 8, : 260106018802968

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Iranian community is very high. Women and older people are at the higher risk of vitamin D deficiency.

AIM: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iran by combining the results of various studies.

METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. Separate strategies were developed for search in national databases (Irandoc, Magiran, SID) and international databases (Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus) using the keywords of "vitamin D deficiency," "Iran," and "prevalence." The titles and abstracts of the articles were screened and related full texts were appraised. Those articles that met inclusion criteria were selected for meta-analysis. The heterogeneity of the articles was assessed via the Chi-square test. They were combined using the random-effect approach. In addition, the groups were categorized and analyzed in terms of age and gender.

RESULTS: Of 639 articles, 30 articles with a sample size of 26,042 people were included for data analysis. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was reported as 0.56. Subgroup analysis showed that 0.64 of women and 0.44 of men were suffering from vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the age groups under 20, 20-50, and over 50 years was 0.56.4, 0.72.4, and 0.59.8, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The Iranian Ministry of Health is expected to design strategies to improve the status of vitamin D at the national level.

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