[Diagnosis and treatment of five neonatal cerebral venous sinus thrombosis]

Y Liu, D C Han, Y L Hu, L M Chen, J C Li, Y W Su, C X Hu
Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics 2018 October 2, 56 (10): 765-768
Objective: To summarize the clinical presentations and imaging features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in 5 newborns. Methods: The clinical data of 5 newborns with CVST admitted to Department of Neonatology of Maternal and Children Hospital of Hubei Province from February 2017 to April 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The risk factors, clinical presentations, imaging manifestations and treatment of CVST were investigated. Results: Of the 5 full term neonates, 4 were males and 1 female, with 4 aged less than 7 days and 1 more than 7 days; one with the history of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus, one with maternal gestational hypertension. The clinical presentations included seizures (3 cases), fever (3 cases), dehydration (1 cases), lethargy (2 cases), hypoglycemia (2 cases), thrombocytopenia (2 cases). Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed electrical seizures in 3 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) showed 4 cases of intracranial hemorrhage, 3 cases of cerebral parenchymal infarction. For the sites of the thrombi, 4 were in the superior sagittal sinus, 3 in straight sinus, 2 in transverse sinus and 1 in sinus confluence. CT showed intracranial hemorrhage in 2 cases and venous sinus dilatation in 2 cases. Doppler ultrasound showed 2 cases of intraventricular hemorrhage and 2 cases of changes of venous sinus blood flow. Three neonates were treated with anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapy, followed by recanalization of the veins and discontinuing of seizures. Conclusions: Seizure is the main clinical presentation of CVST. The main radiologic manifestations are cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. Timely brain MRI and MRV are helpful in the early diagnosis and treatment of CVST.

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