Outcomes of surgical intervention for refractory gastroparesis: a systematic review

Bryan Zoll, Huaqing Zhao, Michael A Edwards, Roman Petrov, Ron Schey, Henry P Parkman
Journal of Surgical Research 2018, 231: 263-269

BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis (GP) is characterized by delayed gastric emptying with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Various surgical options exist to treat GP not responding to medical treatments (refractory GP), including gastric electric stimulation (GES), gastrectomy (GTx), and pyloric interventions (PI), whereas the outcomes of these procedures have been published; few comparison studies exist.

METHODS: PubMed literature review for articles from September 1988 to October 2017 was performed for prospective and retrospective analyses reporting >5 patients. Unweighted (per study) and weighted (per patient) overall improvement and improvement in symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain were calculated and compared for the different procedures.

RESULTS: Of 325 studies satisfying search criteria, 38 met the study criteria and were included for analysis. Total response to intervention, both weighted and unweighted, was greater with PIs compared to GES (P < 0.05). For unweighted symptom improvements, nausea improved more with PI than with GES (P < 0.05). GES improved vomiting more than epigastric pain (P < 0.05). For weighted symptom improvements, pyloric surgery and GTx improved vomiting compared to GES (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Published outcomes of GES, pyloric surgery, and GTx for refractory GP are compared. Pyloromyotomy/pyloroplasty improves patient response greater than with GES. Weighing by number of studies, pyloric surgery improves nausea and abdominal pain greater than GES. For GES, vomiting is more likely to improve than abdominal pain. Weighing by number of patients, pyloric surgery and GTx improved vomiting compared to GES.

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