Molecular identification of bovine trypanosomes in relation to cattle sources in southwest Nigeria

Paul Olalekan Odeniran, Ewan Thomas Macleod, Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola, Susan Christina Welburn
Parasitology International 2018 September 20, 68 (1): 1-8
Bovine trypanosomosis is a problem in the livestock industry in Nigeria. A longitudinal survey of cattle sampled during the wet and dry seasons was conducted from April 2016 to March 2017. Blood samples were collected by random sampling from 745 cattle in southwest Nigeria and screened for trypanosomes by internal transcribed spacer-polymerase chain reaction (ITS-PCR). Cattle positive for Trypanozoon DNA were further screened with the Rode Trypanozoon antigen type (RoTat) 1.2 PCR and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense glycoprotein (TgsGP) genes for T. evansi and T. b. gambiense respectively. Trypanosome DNA was amplified in 23.8% (95%CI: 20.8-26.9) of cattle with significantly higher prevalence in wet season (95%CI: 22.9-30.8) when compared to the dry season (95%CI: 14.3-23.6). A high prevalence was observed in Fulani cattle farms 54.1% (95%CI: 42.78-64.93%) while the prevalence was lower in institutional farms 14.7% (95%CI: 10.10-20.97%). Trypanosoma vivax was the most prevalent trypanosome observed (11.54% (95%CI: 9.44-14.04%)), followed by T. congolense 8.5% (95%CI: 6.67-10.67%) T. b. brucei 4.8% (95%CI: 3.51-6.62%) and T. evansi 1.74% (95%CI: 1.02-2.96%). Mixed infections were observed in 2.8% (95%CI: 1.85-4.27%) of cattle. Seasonal variation revealed a predominance of T. congolense and T. vivax in wet and dry season, respectively. The high prevalence of Trypanosoma species in cattle indicates a need for expanded surveillance for AAT in southwest Nigeria. Migration, settlement patterns, increased marketing and management types were some of the risk factors identified for AAT.

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