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Responsive neurostimulation: Review of clinical trials and insights into focal epilepsy.

The responsive neurostimulator (RNS ®, NeuroPace Inc.) has been available clinically since 2013 for the treatment of medically refractory partial epilepsy. Using intracranial electrodes and a cranially implanted device, RNS ® provides on-demand electrical cortical stimulation to reduce seizures. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial demonstrated seizure reduction compared with sham stimulation. Seizure reduction was improved and sustained over years in a long-term treatment trial. The RNS ® provides chronic ambulatory electrographic monitoring over years giving unprecedented insight into epilepsy dynamics. Studies to date have looked at the length of time to detecting bilateral seizure onsets in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), demonstrated biorhythms in interictal epileptiform activity over varied time scales, and shown promise in early detection of benefits of adding a new antiepileptic drug. Questions remain as to the boundaries of patient selection and lead placement. "This article is part of the Supplement issue Neurostimulation for Epilepsy."

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