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Tea waste derived activated carbon for the adsorption of sodium diclofenac from wastewater: adsorbent characteristics, adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics

Milan Malhotra, Sumathi Suresh, Anurag Garg
Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 2018 September 17
30221322
The present experimental study reports the performance of tea waste (TW) derived adsorbent for the adsorption of sodium diclofenac (SD) from aqueous solution (SD concentration = 10-50 mg/L). The waste-derived activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation process of raw waste using H2 SO4 , KOH, ZnCl2 , and K2 CO3 as activating agents (TW: activating agent = 1:1 by weight). Subsequently, the oven-dried material was carbonized at 600-°C temperature for 2 h. The synthesized adsorbents were porous and their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area was ranged 115-865 m2 /g. Among all synthesized adsorbents, the adsorbent activated by ZnCl2 exhibited the highest adsorption capacity (= 62 mg/g), though it was much lower compared to 91 mg/g obtained with commercial activated carbon (CAC) (SD concentration = 30 mg/L, adsorbent dose = 300 mg/L and initial wastewater pH = 6.47). SD equilibrium data could be described by Langmuir isotherm adequately, while pseudo-second-order rate model showed better fit to the time based adsorption data. Low activation energy of the adsorption process suggests the reaction to be temperature independent. Thermodynamic parameters showed the spontaneous and endothermic nature of adsorption process conducted in the presence of waste derived adsorbent.

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