Dabigatran-Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis: An Important Complication of Newer Oral Anticoagulation Agents

Swapnil Patel, Mohammad A Hossain, Firas Ajam, Mayurkumar Patel, Mihir Nakrani, Jasmine Patel, Alsadiq Alhillan, Mohamed Hammoda, Anas Alrefaee, Michael Levitt, Arif Asif
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 2018, 10 (10): 791-794
Acute kidney injury (AKI) due to an acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is common and can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and rifampin are common offending agents. Anticoagulant-associated AIN is more frequently reported with the use of warfarin; however, only few case reports have reported an association with the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Herein, we report the case of a 59-year-old male who developed AKI after initiating dabigatran for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Laboratory data demonstrated elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 115 mg/dL (baseline = 35 mg/dL) and serum creatinine (Cr) of 5.06 mg/dL (baseline = 1.3 mg/dL). Urinalysis revealed eosinophiluria. Renal biopsy disclosed diffuse tubulointerstitial nephritis and eosinophils and confirmed the diagnosis of AIN. At 1 week, renal function improved (BUN/Cr = 53/2.73 mg/dL) with steroid therapy and discontinuation of dabigatran. With an increasing use of NOACs, it is important to monitor renal function to diagnose AIN in a timely fashion. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can mitigate serious renal damage induced by dabigatran.

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