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Clinical factors and biomarkers predict outcome in patients with immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Elizabeth M Staley, Wenjing Cao, Huy P Pham, Chong H Kim, Nicole K Kocher, Lucy Zheng, Radhika Gangaraju, Robin G Lorenz, Lance A Williams, Marisa B Marques, X Long Zheng
Haematologica 2019, 104 (1): 166-175
Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is characterized by severe thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. It is primarily caused by immunoglobin G type autoantibodies against ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor. However, reliable markers predictive of patient outcomes are yet to be identified. Seventy-three unique patients with a confirmed diagnosis of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura between April 2006 and December 2017 were enrolled from the Univeristy of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center. Clinical information, laboratory values, and a panel of special biomarkers were collected and/or determined. The results demonstrated that the biomarkers associated with endothelial injury (e.g., von Willebrand factor antigen and collagen-binding activity), acute inflammation (e.g., human neutrophil peptides 1-3 and histone/deoxyribonucleic acid complexes), and activation of the complement alternative pathway (e.g., factors Bb and iC3b) were all significantly increased in patients with acute immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura compared to those in the healthy controls. Moreover, failure to normalize platelet counts within 7 days or failure to markedly reduce serum lactate dehydrogenase by day 5, low total serum protein or albumin, and high serum troponin levels were also predictive of mortality, as were the prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, high fibrinogen, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, Bb, and sC5b-9 on admission. These results may help to stratify patients for more intensive management. The findings may also provide a framework for future multicenter studies to identify valuable prognostic markers for immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

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