Inhibition of NF-κB by Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Prevents the Inflammatory Response in a Ligature-Induced Peri-Implantitis Model: A Canine Study

Chun-Yan He, Li-Peng Jiang, Cheng-Yue Wang, Yue Zhang
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 2018, 49 (2): 610-625

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The roles of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in peri-implantitis are unclear. Here, we used a canine model of peri-implantitis to explore the effects of inhibiting NF-κB with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on the inflammatory response in ligature-induced peri-implantitis.

METHODS: After successfully establishing the peri-implantitis model, beagles were randomly assigned to normal, model or PDTC groups. ELISA tests were used to determine the levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Immunohistochemistry was employed to assess the expression of NF-κB p65. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to determine the mRNA levels of TLR4 and NF-κB p65, and western blot analysis was used to measure the protein levels of TLR4 in periodontal tissues from each group. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs) were cultured and subsequently classified into PDLF normal, PDLF model, PDLF LPS, PDLF PDTC, and PDLF LPS + PDTC groups. An immunofluorescence assay was used to measure the expression level of NF-κB p65. The CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate cell proliferation and apoptosis.

RESULTS: The in vitro results indicated that NF-κB p65 and TLR4 were upregulated in canine periodontal tissues, and PDTC could suppress the expression levels of NF-κB p65 and TLR4. Inflammation could increase TLR4 protein expression in canine periodontal tissue, and PDTC could inhibit the inflammation-induced increase in TLR4 protein expression. These results revealed that PDTC could reverse the LPS-induced increases in the levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. In vivo, the results demonstrated that PDTC inhibited the LPS-induced NF-κB p65 upregulation, and PDTC could reverse the inhibitory effect of the PDLF model + LPS on the proliferation of periodontal fibroblasts. The results also showed that in the PDLF model, LPS promoted PDLF apoptosis by inducing implant periodontitis in canines, but PDTC inhibited the PDLF apoptosis and relieved implant periodontitis in canines.

CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we concluded that PDTC can inhibit the expression of NF-κB and alleviate the inflammatory response induced by LPS, thereby preventing periodontal inflammation and reducing the development of peri-implantitis.

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