Association of oral manifestations in ulcerative colitis: A pilot study

Kp Mohan Kumar, N Nachiammai, G S Madhushankari
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP 2018, 22 (2): 199-203

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic tissue destructive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of autoimmune origin characterized by predominant bowel symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and relapsing and remitting rectal bleeding, leading to loss of weight. Extraintestinal manifestations, including involvement of the oral cavity, may also occur. Oral involvement during IBD includes aphthous ulcers, pyostomatitis vegetans (PV) and lichen planus (LP).

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to document the oral manifestations in UC patients and also to evaluate whether oral manifestation can predict relapse and remission of UC.

Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (8 men and 7 women) diagnosed for UC, in clinics of gastroenterology (with disease duration 5-15 years), with equal age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. All study participants were subjected to intraoral examination to evaluate for oral manifestation. The same patients were also asked a series of questions in the form of questionnaire to evaluate possible association between occurrence of oral manifestations and relapse of UC episode.

Results: PV, minor aphthous ulcer, LP, halitosis, dysgeusia, dry mouth, tongue coating, gingivitis and periodontitis were documented as oral manifestations in UC. PV, minor aphthous ulcer and LP exhibited relapse and remission with the severity of UC.

Conclusion: Our study revealed numerous and varied intraoral manifestations among the patients with UC. The previous episodes of oral manifestations were also similar and reported exacerbation of oral manifestations during relapses. Thus, oral manifestations can be used as an indicator of relapse in UC.

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