[Microbiological profiles of pathogens causing nosocomial bacteremia in 2011, 2013 and 2016]

Xiaojuan Wang, Chunjiang Zhao, Henan Li, Hongbin Chen, Longyang Jin, Zhanwei Wang, Kang Liao, Ji Zeng, Xiuli Xu, Yan Jin, Danhong Su, Wenen Liu, Zhidong Hu, Bin Cao, Yunzhuo Chu, Rong Zhang, Yanping Luo, Bijie Hu, Hui Wang
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology 2018 August 25, 34 (8): 1205-1217
To dynamically investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteremia pathogens isolated from different regions in China in 2011, 2013 and 2016. Non-repetitive isolates from nosocomial bloodstream infections were retrospectively collected and detected for antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) by agar dilution or microbroth dilution methods. Whonet 5.6 was used to analyze the AST data. Among 2 248 isolates, 1 657 (73.7%) were Gram-negative bacilli and 591 (26.3%) were Gram-positive cocci. The top five bacteremia pathogens were as follows, Escherichia coli (32.6%, 733/2 248), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.5%, 327/2 248), Staphylococcus aureus (10.0%, 225/2 248), Acinetobacter baumannii (8.7%, 196/2 248) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.2%, 140/2 248). Colistin (96.5%, 1 525/1 581, excluding innate resistant organisms), tigecycline (95.6%, 1 375/1 438, excluding innate resistant organisms), ceftazidine/clavulanate acid (89.2%, 1 112 /1 246), amikacin (86.4%, 1 382/1 599) and meropenem (85.7%, 1 376/1 605) showed relatively high susceptibility against Gram-negative bacilli. While tigecycline, teicoplanin and daptomycin (the susceptibility rates were 100.0%), vancomycin and linezolid (the susceptibility rates were 99.7%) demonstrated high susceptibility against Gram-positive cocci. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were 50.6% (206/407), 49.8% (136/273) and 38.9% (167/429) in 2011, 2013 and 2016 respectively; carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were 2.2% (9/408), 4.0% (16/402) and 3.9% (17/439) in 2011, 2013 and 2016 respectively; The prevalence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRA) was 76.4% (55/72) in 2011, 82.7% (43/52) in 2013 and 87.5% (63/72) in 2016, respectively. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRP) was 9.8% (5/51) in 2011, 20.0% (7/35) in 2013 and 13.0% (7/54) in 2016, respectively. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 51.9% (41/79) in 2011, 29.7% (19/64) in 2013 and 31.7% (26/82) in 2016, respectively. The prevalence of high level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were 43.2% (48/111) and 40.9% (27/66), respectively. The predominant organism of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae was K. pneumoniae with its proportion of 57.1% (24/42). Among 30 tigecycline-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, K. pneumoniae was the most popular organism with 76.7% (23/30). Among 39 colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae and K. pneumoniae were constituted with the percent of 43.6 (17/39), 35.9 (14/39) and 15.4 (6/39), respectively. The Gram-negative bacilli (E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the major organisms) were the major pathogens of nosocomial bacteremia, to which tigecycline, colistin and carbapenems kept with highly in vitro susceptibility. Whereas, among the Gram-positive cocci, S. aureus was the top 1 isolated organism, followed by E. faecium, to which tigecycline, daptomycin, linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin kept with highly in vitro susceptibility. Isolation of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, tigecycline-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, linezolid- or vancomycin-non-susceptible Gram-positive cocci suggests more attention should be paid to these resistant organisms and dynamic surveillance was essential.

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