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Alighting and Feeding Behavior of Trypanosome-Transmitting Vectors on Cattle in Nigeria

Paul Olalekan Odeniran, Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
Journal of Medical Entomology 2018 October 25, 55 (6): 1594-1601
Vector control is important to effectively prevent trypanosomiasis. Therefore, alighting and feeding responses of trypanosome-transmitting vectors were conducted in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to assess the landing preference, level of fly annoyance on cattle, and feeding behavior by direct observation of cows, bulls, and calves. The percentage of Glossina species, Tabanus species, and stomoxyine that fed on cattle blood after landing varied according to the age and sex of the cattle host. Although most flies left the cattle host before completing their meal because of host defensive behaviors, an average of 78, 19.6, and 10.2% of Glossina, Tabanus, and stomoxyines, respectively, were fully engorged. The longest mean feeding time was observed in Glossina. Over more than 90% of Glossina spp. landed on the belly and legs. Most Tabanus spp. (85%) also landed on the belly and legs while Tabanus par Walker (Diptera: Tabanidae) often landed on the back (45%). Half of Stomoxys species landed on the head and neck. Vector flies' feeding success varied according to cattle host age and was negatively correlated with defensive host behaviors and apparent fly density. Hence, fly defensive behaviors contribute to trypanosomiasis dynamics in a cattle herd, and expended energy from defensive behaviors could adversely affect productivity.


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