JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Study on cytotoxicity of three-dimensional printed β-tricalcium phosphate loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide) anti-tuberculosis drug sustained release microspheres and its effect on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells]

Dong Gong, Yonghai Ma, Xinle Yang, Weiqiang Xie, Longlong Shao, Ping Zhen
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery 2018 September 1, 32 (9): 1131-1136
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Objective: To study the effect of three-dimensional (3D) printed β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) anti-tuberculosis drug sustained release microspheres on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and its cytotoxicity.

Methods: Isoniazid and rifampicin/PLGA sustained release microspheres were prepared by W/O/W multiple emulsion method. The β-TCP scaffolds were prepared by 3D printing technique. The microspheres were loaded on the scaffolds by centrifugal oscillation method to prepare composite materials. The BMSCs of Sprague Dawley rat were isolated and cultured by whole bone marrow adherent method, and the third generation cells were used for the following experiments. BMSCs were co-cultured with osteogenic induction medium (group A), PLGA anti-tuberculosis drug sustained release microsphere extract (group B), 3D printed β-TCP scaffold extract (group C), and 3D printed β-TCP scaffold loaded PLGA anti-tuberculosis drug sustained release microsphere composite extract (group D), respectively. Cytotoxicity was detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) method; the calcium deposition was observed by alizarin red staining; and the mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).

Results: CCK-8 assay showed that the absorbance ( A ) value of groups A, B, C, and D increased gradually with the culture time prolonging. After cultured for 24, 48, and 72 hours, the A value decreased in the order of groups A, C, B, and D. There was no significant difference between groups B and D ( P >0.05), but there were significant differences between other groups ( P <0.05). The cytotoxicity was evaluated as grade 0-2, and the toxicity test was qualified. Alizarin red staining showed that red mineralized nodules were formed in all groups at 21 days after osteogenic induction, but the number of mineralized nodules decreased sequentially in groups C, D, A, and B. RT-qPCR test results showed that the relative expressions of OCN and BSP genes in groups A, B, C, and D increased gradually with the culture time prolonging. The relative expression of ALP gene increased at 7 and 14 days, and decreased at 21 days. After cultured for 7, 14, and 21 days, the relative expressions of ALP, OCN, and BSP genes decreased sequentially in groups C, D, A, and B; the differences were significant between groups at different time points ( P <0.05).

Conclusion: 3D printed β-TCP loaded PLGA anti-tuberculosis drug sustained release microsphere composites have no obvious cytotoxicity to BMSCs, and can promote BMSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts to a certain extent.

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