[A clinical and genetic analysis of a child with supernumerary marker chromosome 15-caused mental retardation, intractable epilepsy, and central precocious puberty]

Zhi-Jie Gao, Qian Jiang, Qian Chen, Jing-Min Wang, Hong Pan
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics 2018, 20 (8): 652-657
Supernumerary marker chromosome 15 is a rare chromosome abnormality. This paper reports the clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as genetic defects, of a child with supernumerary marker chromosome 15. The patient was a 9.5-year-old girl who had mental and motor retardation since infancy, breast development at the age of 7 years, and seizures at the age of 8.5 years. Seizures occurred with various features and could not be controlled by a variety of antiepileptic drugs. No abnormalities were found by brain magnetic resonance imaging. Electroencephalogram showed frequent epileptiform discharges. G-banding karyotype analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and array comparative genomic hybridization identified a de novo 15q duplication in the patient. The maternal copy number increased in the 15q11-13 region. The form of genome rearrangement was 47,XX,+inv dup(15)(pter to q13:q13 to pter). The increased copy number in the 15q11-13 region is closely related to mental retardation, intractable epilepsy, and central precocious puberty. High-resolution karyotype analysis is recommended for children with unexplained mental retardation and epilepsy.

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