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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Fatal Neutropenic Enterocolitis Caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A Rare and Underrecognized Entity

Satoshi Kaito, Noritaka Sekiya, Yuho Najima, Naoki Sano, Shinichiro Horiguchi, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Tsunekazu Hishima, Kazuteru Ohashi
Internal Medicine 2018 December 15, 57 (24): 3667-3671
30101922
Although Stenotrophomonas maltophilia causes substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, it has not been described as a causal pathogen of neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC). We describe the first case of histologically-confirmed NEC caused by S. maltophilia accompanied by bacteremia and pneumonia after salvage chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia relapse following a second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. S. maltophilia should be included as a pathogenic organism of NEC in severely immunocompromised patients to prevent a delayed diagnosis, which carries a high risk of inappropriate antimicrobial selection and fatal outcome.

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